Papers (available for download here)

Measuring Time Spent Outdoors Using a Wearable Camera and GPS
SenseCam 2013 San Diego, CA

Carlson, J. A., Jankowska, M. M., Meseck, K., Godbole, S., Natarajan, L., Raab, F., ... & Kerr, J. (2014). Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise

Demchak, B., Kerr, J., Raab, F., Patrick, K., & Kruger, I. H. (2012, January). PALMS: a modern coevolution of community and computing using policy driven development. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 2735-2744). IEEE.

Demchak, B., & Kruger, I. (2012, July). Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems. In Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2012 IEEE International Symposium (pp. 17-24). IEEE.

Ellis, K., Kerr, J., Godbole, S., Lanckriet, G., Wing, D., & Marshall, S. (2014). A random forest classifier for the prediction of energy expenditure and type of physical activity from wrist and hip accelerometers. Physiological measurement,35(11), 2191.

Ellis, K., Godbole, S., Kerr, J., & Lanckriet, G. (2014, September). Multi-Sensor physical activity recognition in free-living. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct Publication (pp. 431-440). ACM.

Ellis, K., Godbole, S., Marshall, S., Lanckriet, G., Staudenmayer, J., & Kerr, J. (2014). Identifying active travel behaviors in challenging environments using GPS, accelerometers, and machine learning algorithms. Frontiers in public health, 2.

Ellis, K., Godbole, S., Chen, J., Marshall, S., Lanckriet, G., & Kerr, J. (2013, November). Physical activity recognition in free-living from body-worn sensors. In Proceedings of the 4th International SenseCam & Pervasive Imaging Conference (pp. 88-89). ACM.

Other Papers and Citations

Please acknowledge use of PALMS in your papers as follows: "The analysis in this paper was supported in part through a collaboration with the PALMS Project ( at the University of California, San Diego. Funded by NIH/NCI Grant 1 U01 CA130771.”

If you have cited PALMS in a published work and the title is not included in our list, please contact us with the citation.

McMinn, David, et al. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry. Geospatial health 8.2 (2014): 569-572.

Kerr J, Duncan S, Schipperijn J. Using global positioning systems in health research: a practical approach to data collection and processing. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Nov;41(5):532-40.

Jacqueline Kerr, Gregory Norman, Suneeta Godbole, Fredric Raab, Barry Demchak, Kevin Patrick (2012) Validating GPS Data With The PALMS System To Detect Different Active Transportation Modes, Med Sci Sports Exercise, 44(5 Suppl) S2529.

Pooja S. Tandon, Brian E. Saelens, Chuan Zhou, Jacqueline Kerr, Dimitri A. Christakis Use of light sensors and GPS to differentiate indoor vs. outdoor locations of physical activity in preschoolers at child care. AJPM in press 2012

Using GPS technology to (re)-examine operational definitions of 'neighbourhood' in place-based health research. International Journal of Health Geographics 2012, 11:22 doi:10.1186/1476-072X-11-22 Bryan J Boruff , Andrea Nathan, Sandra Nijënstein

Poh, B. K., Safiah, M. Y., Tahir, A., Haslinda, M. S., Norazlin, N. S., Norimah, A. K., ... & Fatimah, S. (2010). Physical Activity Pattern and Energy Expenditure of Malaysian Adults: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian journal of nutrition, (16), 13-37.

Patrick, K. (2009). A Tool for Geospatial Analysis of Physical Activity: Physical Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS): 74: 1: 50 PM-2: 15 PM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(5), 10.

Roy Chowdhury, D. (2012). Examining reasons for participation in sport and exercise using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS)(Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University).

Molanorouzi, K., Khoo, S., & Morris, T. (2014). Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS). BMC public health, 14(1), 909.

Zach, S., Bar-Eli, M., Morris, T., & Moore, M. (2012). Measuring motivation for physical activity: an exploratory study of PALMS-the physical activity and leisure motivation scale. Athletic Insight, 4(2), 141-152.

Patrick, K., Kerr, J., Norman, G., Ryan, S., Sallis, J., Krueger, I., ... & Ainsworth, B. (2008). Geospatial measurement & analysis of physical activity: physical activity location measurement system (PALMS). Epidemiology, 19(6), S63.

Klinker, C. D., Schipperijn, J., Kerr, J., Ersbøll, A. K., & Troelsen, J. (2014). Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods.Frontiers in public health, 2.

Andersen, H. B., Klinker, C. D., Toftager, M., Pawlowski, C. S., & Schipperijn, J. (2015). Objectively measured differences in physical activity in five types of schoolyard area. Landscape and Urban Planning, 134, 83-92.

Klinker, C. D., Schipperijn, J., Toftager, M., Kerr, J., & Troelsen, J. (2015). When cities move children: Development of a new methodology to assess context-specific physical activity behaviour among children and adolescents using accelerometers and GPS. Health & place, 31, 90-99.

O’connor, T. M., Cerin, E., Robles, J., Lee, R. E., Kerr, J., Butte, N., ... & Baranowski, T. (2013). Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication. Geospatial health,7(2), 375-380.

Matthews, S. A., & Yang, T. C. (2013). Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): promoting activity space approaches in research on place and health. American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764213487345.

Zenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., Matthews, S. A., Odoms-Young, A., Wilbur, J., Wegrzyn, L., ... & Stokes, C. (2011). Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study. Health & place, 17(5), 1150-1161.

Ellis, K., Godbole, S., Marshall, S., Lanckriet, G., Staudenmayer, J., & Kerr, J. (2014). Identifying active travel behaviors in challenging environments using GPS, accelerometers, and machine learning algorithms. Frontiers in public health, 2.

Boruff, B. J., Nathan, A., & Nijënstein, S. (2012). Using GPS technology to (re)-examine operational definitions of ‘neighbourhood’in place-based health research. International journal of health geographics, 11(1), 22

Gell, N. M., Rosenberg, D. E., Carlson, J., Kerr, J., & Belza, B. (2014). Built environment attributes related to GPS measured active trips in mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities. Disability and Health Journal.

Madsen, T., Schipperijn, J., Christiansen, L. B., Nielsen, T. S., & Troelsen, J. (2014). Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior. Frontiers in public health, 2.

Madsen, T. Transport cycling behavior: Associations between the built environment and transport cycling in Denmark.
(Doctoral dissertation, SDUSDU, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige FakultetDet Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Institut for Idræt og BiomekanikInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics).

Duncan, J. S., Oliver, M., & MacRae, D. (2011). Positional accuracy of five different portable GPS receivers under a variety of environmental conditions. In 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference; San Diego, CA

Lam, M. S., Godbole, S., Chen, J., Oliver, M., Badland, H., Marshall, S. J., ... & Kerr, J. (2013, November). Measuring time spent outdoors using a wearable camera and GPS. In Proceedings of the 4th International SenseCam & Pervasive Imaging Conference (pp. 1-7). ACM.

Jankowska, M. M., Schipperijn, J., & Kerr, J. (2015). A Framework for Using GPS Data in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Studies. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 43(1), 48-56.

Tandon, P. S., Saelens, B. E., Zhou, C., Kerr, J., & Christakis, D. A. (2013). Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care. American journal of preventive medicine, 44(1), 85-88.

Rosenberg, D. (2013, November). Using GPS to examine active transportation patterns among people aging with mobility disabilities. In 141st APHA Annual Meeting (November 2-November 6, 2013). APHA.

Møller, K. L., Thygesen, L. C., Schipperijn, J., Loft, S., Bonde, J. P., Mikkelsen, S., & Brauer, C. (2014). Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees-Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System. PloS one, 9(9), e106671.

Bekö, G., Kjeldsen, B. U., Olsen, Y., Schipperijn, J., Wierzbicka, A., Karottki, D. G., ... & Clausen, G. (2015). Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking. Atmospheric Environment.

Kerr, J., Marshall, S., Godbole, S., Neukam, S., Crist, K., Wasilenko, K., ... & Buchner, D. (2012). The relationship between outdoor activity and health in older adults using GPS. International journal of environmental research and public health, 9(12), 4615-4625.

O’Connor, T., Cerin, E., Robles, J., Lee, R., Baranowski, T., Butte, N., ... & Thompson, D. (2012, January). Feasibility study to simultaneously objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic-American preschool children. In Proceedings of the 2012 Active Living Research conference (pp. 1-1). The Conference.

Patrick, K., Griswold, B., Norman, G., Raab, F., Kerr, J., Demchak, B., ... & Quick, N. Mobile Technologies and the Exposome: Continuous Assessment of Environmental Exposures Critical to Health. Lecture Notes on Wireless Healthcare Research, 25.

Kerr, J., Norman, G., Godbole, S., Raab, F., Demchak, B., & Patrick, K. (2012, May). Validating GPS data with the PALMS system to detect different active transportation modes. In MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE (Vol. 44, pp. 647-647). 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS.

Conference Presentations

ALR Conference (2012)
ALR Conference (2011)

PALMS Users Conference (2011)

3Gs Workshop (2009)


PALMS Overview (3 April 2011)

PALMS Factsheet

PALMS-CI -- A Policy-driven Cyber-infrastructure for the Exposure Biology Community

Model-based Requirements Elicitation for Policy-Reactive Cyberinfrastructures

Policy-driven Development